This temple was built by King DevanampiyaTissa for 500 children birth to reside in, after they were ordained. Housed within the nearby museum is the famous 6th century carving called the "Isurumuniya Lovers". This rock temple, dating from the ruled of DevanampiyaTissa (247-207 BC), has some smashing carvings.

On the rock face beside a square pool fed from the TissaWewa. Best known of the sculptures is the 'lovers', which dates from around the 5th century AD and is built in the artistic style of the Indian Gupta dynasty of the 4th and 5th centuries. A small Dagoba(Pagoda) is built on the rock. It can be seen that the constructional work of this pagoda belong to the present era. On the rock is carved the shape of a horse. The carving of Isurumuniya lovers on the slab has been brought from another place and positioned it there. A few yards away from this Vihara is the RanmasuUyana.